Integrated Circuits (ICs)

An integrated circuit (IC) is a small arrangement of transistors, diodes, and other electronic components created on a semiconductor material (typically silicon) and capable of performing a number of operations such as signal amplification, data storage and processing, and electrical control.

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An integrated circuit (IC) is a small piece of semiconductor material, typically silicon, containing a collection of electronic circuits that have been integrated together on the chip. This integration process results in circuits that are much smaller, faster, and cheaper than those constructed from individual components. The integrated circuit may contain thousands or even millions of microscopic resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors that are fabricated onto a semiconductor wafer. ICs have a wide range of applications, serving as amplifiers, oscillators, timers, counters, logic gates, microcontrollers, microprocessors, and computer memory.

ICs are a crucial component in most circuits and can be found in nearly all modern electronic devices. They are the fundamental building block upon which much of modern technology is built. The mass production capability, reliability, and modular approach to integrated circuits have made them commercially viable, particularly when high production volumes are expected.


Integrated circuit types

Integrated circuits are classified based on their functions and manufacturing techniques. The three main types of ICs are digital, analog, and mixed-signal ICs. Digital ICs use boolean algebra to process "one" and "zero" signals and are used in microprocessors, DSPs, and microcontrollers. They can contain billions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a small area. Analog ICs, on the other hand, are used to process continuous signals and are used in amplifiers, oscillators, and other analog circuits. Mixed-signal ICs combine both analog and digital signaling on the same IC.

Integrated circuits can also be categorized based on their applications. Memory chips store data and program code, while programmable ICs allow for customization of their functionality. Interface ICs provide a link between different parts of a system. Power management ICs control the power usage of a system, while logic ICs perform logical operations. These categories are not mutually exclusive, and an IC may belong to more than one category depending on its features and intended use.


Logic Gate Types:

Logic gates are essential components of digital circuits. They are electronic devices that perform logical operations on one or more binary inputs in order to generate a single binary output.

  • There are 7 types of logic gates: 
    • AND Gate
    • OR Gate
    • XOR Gate
    • NOT Gate
    • NAND Gate
    • NOR Gate
    • XNOR Gate

Basic Logic Gate Symbol:

There are seven different types of logic gates. The symbols for seven logic gates are shown below. A and B represent the input variables or signals, and the gate's output terminal represents the resulting output.