All About pH Sensor

pH Sensor


Are you Looking to understand the basics of pH sensors and their applications? If the answer is Yes! Then this blog is a must-read! because we have covered everything from the working principle of pH sensors, the different types available, and how to measure pH using a microcontroller. From water quality monitoring to food and beverage production, pH sensors find use in diverse industries. So, whether you're a beginner or a pro, this informative blog will surely pique your interest in the world of pH sensors.

What is a pH sensor

Water pollution is caused when many chemicals, sewage, and fertilizers are dumped into rivers. It must be prevented by measuring water quality because this harms human and aquatic health. The water pH sensor is a simple device that makes it easy to measure the quality of the water. 


What is a pH sensor


One of the most important instruments for measuring the quality of water is the pH sensor, which is frequently employed in the monitoring of water quality. It is possible to measure the alkalinity and acidity of water and other solutions with this type of sensor. pH sensors help assure the safety and quality of  wastewater from manufacturing facilities when they are used properly.


The traditional method for measuring the quality or pH of water is by using pH indicators. Although they cannot provide a precise reading of the pH, they  can be used for assessing whether a substance is an acid or a base. Litmus, phenolphthalein, and methyl orange are the three primary pH indicators frequently used in laboratories. To estimate pH, these indicators rely on visible color changes. However, it is now standard procedure to measure pH with a pH meter or sensor.


ph scale

pH Sensor Working Principle

The exchange of ions from the solution to the inner solution of the glass electrode via the glass membrane is the basis for the pH sensor's operation. With continued usage, the glass membrane's porosity decreases, lowering the probe's performance. 

The Ph Sensor is often made of glass and has a rod-like construction with a bulb at the bottom that holds the sensor. A glass bulb that is specifically made to be selective to hydrogen-ion concentration is present in the glass electrode used to measure pH. Hydrogen ions in the test solution exchange with other positively charged ions on the glass bulb upon immersion in the solution under test, creating an electrochemical potential across the bulb. The electrical potential difference between the two electrodes created during the test is detected by the electronic amplifier, which transforms it into pH units. The Nernst equation states that the electrochemical potential across the glass bulb is linearly linked to pH. 


ph sensor working principle



Since the reference electrode is made of a metallic conductor that is connected to the display, it is insensitive to the pH of the solution. A porous ceramic membrane allows the electrolyte solution‚ÄĒtypically potassium chloride‚ÄĒin which this conductor is submerged to interact with the test solution. Voltmeters that display voltage in pH units make up the display.¬†


This pH sensor is connected to the transducer called the transmitter or signal conversion board. This board includes a pH sensor connector which is connected to the sensor probe, pH limit setting, Analog reading Offsets and six IO pins.


ph sensor diagram

  • This pH sensor is a piece of equipment used in science to determine whether a solution is naturally acidic or alkaline.¬†
  • pH levels can be detected between 0 and 14 by the sensor set.¬†
  • This pH sensor kit can be used to assess the quality of both soil and water.¬†
  • As part of the sensor package, a pH probe and sensor board will be used to condition the signal.






Concentration range

pH 0-14


0 ‚Äď 60 Degree Celcius

Response time

<= 5 s

Stability time

<=120 s

Power consumption 

<=0.5 W


42mm x 32mm x 20mm



Types of pH sensors

There are several types of pH sensors available in the market today, some of them include: 

Combination Sensor:

As time goes on, these materials might get more durable, but the underlying science doesn't change. The combination sensor uses a reference electrode and a measuring electrode to produce an electric signal from the difference between the two electrodes that can be used to calculate the pH. 

Differential pH sensor:

Similar reference and sensing electrodes are used in this type of sensor as in combination sensors, but they are coupled with a third metal grounding electrode to maintain accuracy if contamination or rapidly changing pH. To reduce background noise on pH readings, the electrode is used almost like a safety net. Overall, the industrial pH combination sensors won't have any issues in such severe settings if maintained appropriately. 

Lab grade pH sensor:

The lab-grade pH sensor is an improvement over consumer-grade pH sensors because it uses better materials in a combination electrode arrangement to measure temperatures and pH levels that can be more intense in wastewater and research situations. 

Process pH sensor:  

Combination sensor technology is used in larger, more robust bodies for process pH sensors. These sensors also have a process connection, which makes them ideal for monitoring the pH levels of your water continuously. These sensors can be put directly into a pipe or placed inside a tank due to their high level of endurance.  

Advantages of pH Sensors

  1. Increased Accuracy: pH sensors offer greater accuracy for measuring the acidity or alkalinity of liquids and other solutions than traditional methods like paper test strips, so you can be sure that your measurements are reliable.
  2. Reduced Cost: Using a pH sensor will save money in terms of equipment costs when compared to purchasing multiple sets of paper-based testing kits for different tests over time; they also save on labour costs since fewer people have to perform the same process with one device as opposed to many separate ones.
  3. Faster Results: Electric current is transmitted through a probe into any liquid sample being tested, allowing near-instantaneous results without waiting for thick substances (such as yoghurt) which may otherwise take long waits between dips at standard intervals while trying an average manual solution such dipsticks or chemical reagents; thus resulting in tremendous savings with regard to turnaround times while still maintaining high-quality control standards.
  4. Improved Repeatability: With regular use, some wear occurs even with manual probes when continuously dipping them into various samples - this causes inaccuracy due to small variations having accumulated across usage cycles; instead using a highly accurate pH Sensor these problems are easily avoided by thanks their repeatable performance by providing consistent readings each time it’s used no matter how often.

Disadvantages of pH Sensors

  1. Expensive cost of acquisition and costs associated with maintenance over time
  2. High susceptibility to interference from external sources such as temperature or other chemicals present in the environment
  3. Potential for inaccuracies due to errors created by improper calibration techniques
  4. Electrodes need frequent replacement which increases operational costs significantly
  5. Poor performance within extreme pH ranges.

How to measure the  pH with a Microcontroller


measure the  pH with a microcontroller




pH sensor(Transmitter)






pH out


#define SensorPin A0    

unsigned long int avgValue;   

float b;

int buf[10],temp;

void setup()





void loop()


  for(int i=0;i<10;i++)   





  for(int i=0;i<9;i++)      


    for(int j=i+1;j<10;j++)











  for(int i=2;i<8;i++)                      //take the average value of 6 center sample


  float phValue=(float)avgValue*5.0/1024/6; //convert the analog into millivolt

  phValue=3.5*phValue;                      //convert the millivolt into pH value

  Serial.print("    pH:");  




  • Chemical and Paramedical¬†industries
  • Agricultural industries
  • Beverage and food industries
  • Water purification plants
  • Waste water treatment



In this blog post, we have learnt that a pH sensor It's an absolute game-changer that can measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution! By grasping the complex workings of this device and the diverse varieties available in the market, you can select the ideal pH sensor for your specific requirements. It's a vital asset for multiple industries, such as food and beverage, agriculture, and environmental monitoring, which is nothing short of mind-blowing! Whether you're a researcher or a hobbyist, you simply cannot live without a pH sensor in your arsenal. So, stop wasting any more time, and acquire your very own pH sensor today to unravel the mesmerizing world of pH measurement!


If you appreciate our work don't forget to share this post and leave your opinion in the comment box.


Please do check out other blog posts about Popular electronics


Make sure you check out our wide range of products and collections (we offer some exciting deals!)

You may also like to read

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is a pH sensor used for?

A pH sensor is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid or solution. It works by detecting the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution, which determines its pH level. pH sensors are commonly used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, environmental monitoring, and food and beverage production to ensure proper pH levels for optimal performance or quality.

2. How is pH measured?

pH is measured using a pH meter or pH indicator paper. The pH meter measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, while the pH indicator paper changes color based on the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A neutral pH is 7, acidic solutions have a pH below 7, and alkaline solutions have a pH above 7. 

3. Why is pH important?

pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is important because many chemical and biological processes are sensitive to changes in pH. For example, enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions have optimal pH ranges, and changes in pH can affect the solubility and reactivity of molecules. Maintaining proper pH levels is crucial for the functioning of living organisms and many industrial processes.

Back to blog

Leave a comment

Please note, comments need to be approved before they are published.

You may also like to read