DC Motor Applications
Hello everyone! In this blog, we will be looking at applications of dc motor. Stay tuned and let's get started!
A motor changes electrical energy to rotary motion. DC motor or Direct current motor is a motor that runs on a Direct current. Compared to AC motors, DC motors are low cost, easy to start, stop, and reverse, they have high starting torque and the most important advantage is that they can be easily controlled. For a more detailed explanation of what is dc motor, working and how to control refer Speed control of a DC motor. Because of all these exciting features, they are used in diverse fields.
What are the applications of DC Motor?
The type of motor used in a particular application depends on the characteristic of the dc motor. Depending on the desired characteristics i.e. mechanical requirements of the applied load, torque characteristics (for example different motors are distinguished by the torque generated when the motor starts and the torque produced when it's running at rated speed) different motors are used in different applications.
Application of Permanent Magnet DC Motor
In this type of motor, there is no field winding around the stator instead a permanent magnet is used to produce magnetic flux. Hence it only has armature connections and no field windings since there is a stator and no field winding.
Following are the applications:
- AIR conditioners.
- Computer drives
- Electric toothbrushes
- Portable vacuum cleaners. Drilling machines, trimmers, etc.
- Food mixers
They are used where a small motor is required and no speed control is necessary.
Applications of DC series motor
Used where high starting torque is needed, variation of speed is required they are not fit for constant speed.
DC series motor uses are:
- Vacuum cleaner
- Traction systems
- Sewing machines
- Air compressors.
In this type of motor field winding is present and is connected in series with the armature winding as shown in the figure
(Note: You can neglect the resistance R rheostat in the figure it's just here so that we will be able to limit the current through the field winding. So the general figure of shunt and compound would consist without the Rheostat R.)
Applications of Shunt Motor
In this type of motor field winding is present and is connected in parallel(that's why called a shunt) with the armature winding as shown in the figure.
- Centrifugal pumps
- Weaving and lathe machines
- Spinning machines
They are used where constant/stable speed is required irrespective of the load.
Application of Compound Motor
This motor consists of both shunt and series field winding. They can be started at no load, unlike dc motors. They are categorized into two types:
Cumulative compound motor:
It comes with a high starting torque and has satisfactory speed regulation at fast speeds.
Uses of Cumulative compound motor:
- Rolling mills
- Heavy planners.
Used where high starting torque and almost constant speed are needed.
Differential compound DC motor
In differential motor, the series field opposes the shunt field. It has low starting torque as net flux is minimized by this opposition. Its flux reduces sharply for the small increase in load at higher values of load. This decrease in flux causes the starting torque to be less than any other DC motor. They are not used much for practical applications.
In this blog, we have seen different types of dc motors and their applications in various fields based on their characteristics.
Feel free to comment if you have any questions and see you next time.
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