Introduction to “Internet” of Things
At any point in time, have you ever wondered how communication takes place over the internet?
Well, in order to achieve connectivity from end-to-end, we need to specify a few ways in which data should be divided into packets, addressed so that it can be sent to the correct location, transmitted, routed and received. For this, the IP Suite or the Internet Protocol Suite is implemented. It is the standard network model and communication protocol stack used on the majority of computer networks and even on the Internet. In the IP Suite, various protocols are used to define the end-to-end handling methods of the data for everything, ranging from packetizing, addressing, routing to receiving.
We need to achieve end-to-end connectivity by specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received, for this, we use an internet protocol suite. Internet Protocol suite also known as IP suite is the standard network model and communication protocol stack used on the Internet and on most other computer networks. In the suite the protocols define end-to-end data handling methods for everything from packetizing, addressing and routing to receiving.
What is a TCP / IP?
The foundational protocols of the IP Suite are composed of a set of communication protocols, the TCP or Transmission Control Protocol and IP or Internet Protocol. Because of this, the IP Suite is also generally referred to as TCP/IP, kind of like a nickname. Together in the form of IP suite, they provide the necessary information required for end-to-end data communication, i.e. they specify how any data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. This whole operation or functionality is broadly divided into four different layers of abstraction, that based on the scope of networking involved, classify all the related protocols.
The IP Suite is a set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It is generally referred to as TCP / IP because the principal protocols in the suite are the TCP aka. Transmission Control Protocol and the IP aka. Internet Protocol. The IP suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. This functionality is organized into four abstraction layers, which classify all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved.
Let’s take an example:
Whenever a user generates a command that uses a TCP/IP application layer protocol, a chain of events take place after that. The user's command or message passes through the TCP/IP protocol stack on the local machine and then across the network media to the protocols on the recipient. Different protocols add a piece of new information to the original data at each layer of the sending host.
The protocols at each layer on the sending host add information to the original data.
In the TCP /IP model, the Link layer consists of the physical layer and the data link layer.
The Physical layer encodes and decodes the bits in binary form and includes the transceiver that drives and receives the signals on the network.
Data Link layer- At this layer, frames are created that use MAC addresses to identify the source and the destination.
The Network layer creates packets that use IP addresses to identify the packet’s source and destination. An IP address can be represented using IPv4 or IPv6 address format.
The Transport layer is used to establish the link between the applications running on different hosts. For reliable connections, it uses TCP, and for a connectionless and faster communication, it uses UDP. To keep track of the processes running in the applications above it, it assigns port numbers to different processes and uses the Network layer to access the TCP/IP network.
The Application layer generates a message, which is then sent to the Transport Layer. In this case, the specific application is a web browser requesting a webpage download.
Four layers are as follows:
- Link layers / Network Access layer: The link-layer protocols operate within the scope of the local network connection to which a host is attached. The link layer is used for transporting packets between the Internet layer interfaces of two unique hosts on the same link. The processes and services required for transmitting and receiving data packets on the link can be controlled through the device driver of the network card and firmware or by using specialized chipsets.
- Internet layer: The internetworking requires data to be sent from the source network to the destination network, and it is called routing. Routing is supported by host addressing and identification through the IP addressing system. The internet layer is responsible for sending data packets across multiple networks. Through this functionality, the internet layer makes possible internetworking, the interworking of different IP networks, and essentially establishes the Internet.
What is IPv4?
IPv4: A 32-bit IPv4 address comprises two parts: the network prefix and the host number. All hosts within a single network have the same network address. Each host has its own address, which is used to identify it. The address depending on the networks’ scope and the type of device, is either globally or locally specific. Locally specific IP addresses are needed for devices that are only available within the network. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), a central numbering authority, assigns IP addresses. IANA makes sure the addresses are internationally specific where they're required, and it has a vast address space set aside for devices that aren't available outside of their own networks.
This blog has been submitted by KRSSG, IIT-Kharagpur under the Robocraze Club Outreach Program.
Author: Tanaya Ramane